concept of information technology

Information Technology deals with all the information activities. Typically, IT is used in the context of enterprise operations … Information technology definition is - the technology involving the development, maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and networks for the processing and distribution of data. Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for IFSM 201 : Concepts and Applications of Information Technology at University Of Maryland. Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data[1] or information. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be of great use, but without the reinforcement of definition ... the term IT lacks substance when applied to the name of any function, discipline, or position. An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, soft… [30]:1–9 Most of the world's digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats[31][b] even within a single organization. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort". Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data. It includes all the various activities connected with the location, acquisition, processing, storage and communication of information. [11], The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. … Many companies now have IT departments for managing the computers, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses. [34], Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years. IT is typically used within the context of business operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies. Hardware also includes the peripheral devices that work with computers, such as keyboards, external disk drives, and routers. Information is a resource which has no value until it is extracted, processed and utilized. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007,[22] doubling roughly every 3 years. Information technology management includes many of the basic functions of management, such as staffing, organizing, budgeting and control, but it also has functions that are unique to IT, such as software development, change management, network planning and tech support. (1986). [24], In recent years, the extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation. Fundamental Information Technology Ideas Concept descriptions Binary: that switches have the ability to represent any numeral. That place notation is equivalent to computationally trading space and time (economical representation of decimal versus long binary strings). IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users. Definitions and concepts of technology Definition of technology Technology is the set of technical knowledge, scientifically, ordered that allow you to design and create goods and services that facilitate the adaptation to the environment and meet both their essential needs as people's wishes. This video was created to assist learners in developing a basic understanding of the concept of information technology. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932[17] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. This time period marked the beginning of IT as an officially defined … CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. [23], Database Management Systems (DMS) emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. [4], The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. * 1. it must… It is a word of Greek origin, τεχνολογία, These might include databases or other information repositories. We shall call it information technology (IT)." This is the physical technology that works with information. [44]:9 Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:[45]:20–21, "Infotech" redirects here. • 1. it must be communicated to the recipient • 2. it must be in a language that is understood • 3. it must be in a suitable form • 4. it must be relevant for achieving some After the 1940s, the military remained the major source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace manpower with machine power. Topic: Concept of Technology. [32]:4–6, Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. No-Charge Teleworking Consultations. Introduction: The emergence of ICT is one of the wonderful gifts of modern science and technology which has brought tremendous changes in library and information science. Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information. Meaning of Technology. [10] The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. Concepts and Applications of Information Technology IFSM 201 | 3 Credits (Access to a standard office productivity package, i.e., word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation software, required.) Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. Who Should Attend Anyone who is interested to get knowledge in Computers Pre-requisites General knowledge in computer Objective Basic Concepts of Information Technology requires the… These important inventions led to the development of the personal computer (PC) in the 1970s, and the emergence of information and communications technology (ICT). Read chapter Concepts of Information Security: ... As the congressional Office of Technology Assessment has noted, the effects of computer-based monitoring depend on the way it is used (OTA, 1987a). Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[5][a]. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. We see its effect around us every day, even though we may not know what it is. It automatically receives data, process data and by controlling the whole process of … One difficulty faced by students on many information management courses is the lack of any attempt to teach concepts of information. Inthe literature of IS there is a distinction betweendocument retrieval and fact retrieval. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network. [7] The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism. [20]:4–5 Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. Information technology is a study of the design, implementation, development, management, and support of computer-based information systems that assist with … [33] It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels. Basic Concepts Of Information Technology (IT) Dheeraj Mehrotra www.computerscienceexpertise.com As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally:[21] 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula 2005. information and communications technology, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, Information Technology Association of America, Center for Minorities and People with Disabilities in Information Technology, Information and communications technology, Journal of Cases on Information Technology, List of the largest information technology companies, World Information Technology and Services Alliance, "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)", "Advanced information on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2000", "Early computers at Manchester University", "How Much Information Is There in the World? An early such systems was IBM's Information Management System (IMS),[24] which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later. ", "Format" refers to the physical characteristics of the stored data such as its. Technology is a term that may be new to us but it is describing something which is not new at all. [35] To address that issue, the field of data mining – "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data"[36] – emerged in the late 1980s. [25] IMS stores data hierarchically,[24] but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables, rows and columns. The first way I describe information systems to students is to tell them that they are made up of five components: hardware, software, data, people, and process. Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. [8] Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. (1999). Management information systems are computer-based methods of arranging information in a cohesive, coherent fashion. [13], Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. data-at-rest". The first three, fitting under the technology category, are generally what most students think of … "[38], Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry".[39][40][41]. The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. Inspite of our claim that IR is actually documentretrieval, there has throughout the history of the field aproblematic tendency to regard information as pieces of facts oropinion freed from the documents. [22], Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited". (2000) on a practical foundation for informed consent in Internet transactions. This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 23:00. In 1981, the first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was released by Oracle. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Basics of the information technology Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. There are complex trade-offs among privacy, management control, … Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC. UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY This handout mainly deals with descriptions of data and information technology (IT) concepts and terminologies. By: Kh Atiar Rahman: A computer is an electrically powered device or set of devices which works under the control of a stored programme. Therefore, if a … ", "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", "Americas events- Video animation on The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010", Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report (pdf), "Our programmes, campaigns and partnerships", "U.S. Careers in the growing field of information technology services : Beyond the Numbers: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics", Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 1: Mobile Phones and Information Technology, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Information_technology&oldid=994284119, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders, Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage. For the Indian company, see, On the later more broad application of the term IT, Keary comments: "In its original application 'information technology' was appropriate to describe the convergence of technologies with application in the vast field of data storage, retrieval, processing, and dissemination. Without these backbones of business, it would be impossible for most companies to operate. [26], All DMS consist of components, they allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. * Information is data processed for some purpose * Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. [9], Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. THE CONCEPT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Fundamental Concept of Information Technology. • Information is data processed for some purpose • Information can only be considered to be 'real' Info if it meets certain criteria i.e. [19]:6 Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs. Basic Technology JSS 1, Week: 1. Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace. [28] As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.[29]. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS). 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